The monitoring of the real-world emissions from new cars and vans is based on Article 12 of Regulation (EU) 2019/631. It aims to ensure that the CO₂ emissions of vehicles determined during laboratory testing remain representative of real-world emissions of vehicles in circulation.The procedures for collecting and reporting the real-world data and for comparing it with the corresponding laboratory World Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) data are set out in Regulation (EU) 2021/392. The following graphs contain the first results of this monitoring exercise, based on the data reported by manufacturers in 2022 and covering new vehicles first registered in 2021. They show the average laboratory and real-world CO₂ emissions as well as fuel consumption along with the calculated gap between those two values per manufacturer, per fuel type, for Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles (ICEV) and Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

What the data are telling us

  • The real-world fuel consumption experienced by drivers remains significantly higher than what is indicated on the official documents.
  • The data shows that the average real-world gap is 23.7% for new petrol cars and 18.1% for new diesel cars registered in 2021, giving a combined average gap of 21.2%
  • The km-weighted average gaps are somewhat lower: 20.5% for petrol cars and 16.7% for diesel cars.
  • For the new plug-in hybrid electric cars registered in 2021, the average real-world fuel consumption was significantly higher (252.1%) than what the WLTP test indicates. This discrepancy shows that the electric driving share of the vehicles in use is much lower than what is assumed for the purpose of calculating the WLTP test result.

Where the data come from