ETC/ACM 2018/2 Ex post evaluation and policy implementation in the building sector
Energy consumption for heating and cooling in the building sector has been steadily decreasing in the EU. This has been achieved by numerous policies and measures implemented by Member States aimed at improving energy efficiency buildings. Union policies, such as the Energy Efficiency Directive and the Recast of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, have been an important driver of national policies and measures in Member States. Member States use a mix of different instrument types to improve energy efficiency in buildings, although regulations, financial and information measures are most common. The evidence suggests that the complexity of the policy mix increases over time, as more and more PaMs are implemented. The EEA PaM database also suggests that the instrument mix has changed and that recent PaMs are relatively more frequent regulations and economic instruments, whereas older policies and measures tend to be more fiscal and information instrument types.